Professor Randy H.
Computer Science Division
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, California 94720-1776
Necessity drives invention. In this seminar, we will examine the
interwined historical development of information technology, broadly
defined as computing, communications, and signal processing, in the
20th Century within the
context of modern warfare and national defense. Topics include:
cryptography/cryptanalysis and the development of the computer; command
and control systems and the development of the Internet; the war of
attrition and the development
of the mathematics of operations research; military communications and
the development of the cellular telephone system; precision munitions
the development of the Global Positioning System. While we will
to explain these developments in technical terms at a tutorial level,
main focus is to engage the students in the historical sweep of
development and innovation as driven by national needs, and whether
represents a continuing framework for the 21st Century.
Room 320 Soda Hall, Monday, 10-12 noon
2 Units, Pass/Fail based on attendance, seminar participation, one group paper and presentation (analyzing a world insurgency) plus one individual research paper (on a topic of the student's choice to be negotiated with the instructor).
Discussions will be augmented with selected video presentations to provide context for the technologies and events being discussed.
In addition, we make extensive use of group "games" to emerse the participants into the issues being discussed.
Students really enjoy these, but your active participation is essential; you get out of this course what you put in.
24 January 05
- Seminar Introduction, Course Mechanics, and Getting Acquainted
- Discussion of Students' Background and Experience
- Why Study Warfare?
- The Horror of Modern Warfare: Screening of "Saving Private Ryan", opening Omaha Beach sequence
- Discussion of Universal Conscription vs. the All-Volunteer Army
- Brief Introduction to next week's Naval Game: Early 20th Century Strategic Decision Making
- Read for Next Week: Notes on the Naval War Game [pdf] WARNING 16 MByte file/34 pages long!
31 January 05
- Theme: Naval Warfare, Military Planning, (Naval) Arms Race, and the Role of Technological Surprise
- Historical Example: Late 19th/Early 20th Century
- German and British Naval Policy: the First Arms Race
- Naval Strategies at the Outbreak of WWI
- Threat of the Submarine: Cheap Total War
- Lessons of Jutland for Large-scale Ship-to-Ship engagements in the 20th Century
- Discussion Questions
- How Should Germany Build its Fleet, and What Should Britain Do?
- What can be Learned from 1914-1918, particularly Jutland?
- IT Issues
- Communications, Coordination, Intelligence, Tracking
- Insurgency Project Description, Due 28 March
- Brief introduction to next week's Radio Game: coordinating teams via radio communications
- Readings--Background information on the Naval Game and the WWI Naval Battle of Jutland
- Background briefing: UK vs. Germany at the turn of the 20th Century [pdf]
7 February 05
- Theme: Tactical Communications
- Minilecture on radio communications, discipline, limitations, jamming, etc.
- Physics of Radio: LW, SW, HF, VHF, atmospheric skip vs. line of sight, shared channels
- Group exercise: the Radio Game
- Discussion Questions:
- Is hearing as good as seeing?
- Is radio communications as good as face-to-face communications?
- What is the effect of adversarial intermediaries in the middle of communications?
- Brief Screening from the film "A Bridge Too Far"--The Problems of the Radios
- Brief introduction to air warfare
- Brief introduction to the concept of radar and air interception
- Background briefing: Development of radio and background on the radio game [pdf]
- Readings--Dear Foot: Articles on Radio Communications, Electronic Warfare;
14 February 05
- Theme: Strategic Bombing Offense
- Minilecture on Radar and Strategic Air Warfare in WWII
- Radar: Radio Detection and Ranging
- Bombing (circa 1940)
- Engaging aircraft circa 1940
- The Battle of the Beams: Electronic Warfare and Counter Measures
- Brief screening from the film "Battle of Britain"--German Offensive and the Role of Radar
- Discussion Questions
- What does bombing do?
- Is it effective?
- Is it cost-effective?
- What are the IT issues involved in bombing?
- What strategies might be appropriate for addressing these issues?
- The Air Warfare Game (Battle of Britain Version) [pdf]
- Readings--Dear Foot: Articles on Radar, Electronic Navigation Systems, Strategic Air Offensive, Thousand Bomber Raids, Blitz, Bombers, Fighters;
28 February 05
- Theme: Strategic Air Defense
- Brief Screening of WWII newsreels depicting a 1000 bomber raid--Allied Offensive and the German Response
- Group Exercise: The Air Warfare Game
- Defense: plan an air defense system; Offense: overwhelm air defenses
- Initial planning
- Initial engagement/defense
- Determine outcomes and repeat
- The Air Warfare Game (Strategic Bomber Offensive Version) [pdf]
- Read ahead for next week--Dear Foot: Articles on Air Gap, Mid-Atlantic (pp. 9-11); Atlantic, Battle of (pp. 49-54); Convoys (pp. 207-209); Huff-Duff (pp. 429-430); Magic (pp. 552-555); Midway, Battle of (pp. 585-586); Sea Power (pp. 770-774); Signals Intelligence (pp. 781-785); Submarines (pp. 843-846); Torpedoes (pp. 874-876); Ultra (pp. 910-917);
7 March 05
- Theme: Battle of the Atlantic and Cryptography
- Brief Screening from the film "Das Boot"--The Hunter Becomes the Hunted
- Brief Screening from the film "Enigma"--the Ultra Secret and the Cracking of the German Codes
- Naval War of Attrition: Submarines, Convoys, and Finding the Needle in the Haystack
- Tactical, strategic significance of decrypts
- How encryption works
- How decryption works
- Group Exercise: Breaking a coded message [pdf]
- Brief introduction to the Cold War Game
- Read the following web sites on missile technology and the Cuba Missile Crisis:
14 March 05
- Theme: ICBMs and Ballistic Missle Offense and Defense
- Brief Screening of the film "Thirteen Days"--a part fiction/part fact account of the crisis
- Minilectures [pdf]:
- Historical background: the German V-1 and V-2 weapons
- The Post-WWII World: The Cold War and Mutually Assured Destruction
- The Physics of Ballistic Missile Interception and Destruction
- Group Exercise: The Cold War Game
- Escalating Tensions Modeled on the Cuban Missle Crisis
28 March 05
- Theme: Insurgency and Counter-Insurgency
- Brief Screening of the film "The Battle of Algiers"--Algerian Insurgency and French Counter-Insurgency
- Minilectures [pdf]:
- Historical Background on the Theory of Small Wars (Peninsular War, Boer War, Philippines War)
- Strategies for Counter-Insurgency
- Student reports on 20th Century Insurgencies
- Group 1: IRA insurgency against Great Britain in Northern Ireland, from approximately 1970 to the present;
- Group 2: PLO insurgency against Israel in Israel, Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories, from 1967-present;
- Group 3: FLN insurgency against. France in Algeria, from 1954-1962;
- Group 4: Mujahideen insurgency against Soviet Union in Afghanistan, from 1979-1989;
- Shuffle groups: each must prepare a set of counter insurgency strategies for coming insurgency in given area WITHOUT seeing attackers strategies.
- Group 1: Counter-insurgency strategy for the USSR
- Group 2: for France
- Group 3: for Israel
- Group 4: for UK
- Questions for Discussion
- How would you modify your strategies/counter strategies in the face of what you know about the other side?
- What works for insurgents?
- What works for counter insurgents?
- Brief introduction to the Islandia Game
4 April 05
- Theme: Counter-Insurgency Tactics/Peacemaking and Peacekeeping
- Brief screening of the film "Black Hawk Down"--High tech vs. low tech in peacekeeping operations
- Group Exercise: The Islandia Game
- American forces vs. a popular uprising in a Third World country
- Questions for Discussion
- Rules of engagement in modern conflict
- How effective is America's high technology arsenal?
11 April 05
- Theme: International Terrorism
- Minilecture: Distinction between terrorism and insurgency
- IRA bombing campaign, campaign against Israeli state,
- ANC non-military campaign, RAF, Japanese RAF?,
- Discuss why convoys are so powerful (active defense)
- Is an active defense against terrorism possible?
- What offensive strategies are available?
- How significant is intelligence?
- Readings: The Anarchist's Cookbook (google "anarchists cookbook" for on-line sites)
18 April 05
- Theme: International Terrorism
- Final essay (done individually), due 9 May: Specification.
- Discussion: Assessing US vulnerabilities to terrorism
- From the view of an attacker who wishes to do damage to US infrastructure
- From the view of a defender who wants to defend America from attack
- What is the role of Information Technology?
- Discuss September 11 and speculate on why there have been so few serious terrorist attacks on US soil
- Group Exercise: Terrorism and Anti-Terrorism
- Group 1: Plan a major terrorist campaign on US soil, intention: forcing the US to disengage from the UN (secret from 2)
- Group 2: Capture and disarm group 1 (identify group, funders, etc.)
- Round 1: g1 plans, g2 plans
- Round 2: g1 plans or acts, g2 ditto
- Round 3: g1 plans or acts, g2 ditto
- Round 4: ditto
- Readings: International Terrorism and the War on Terrorism
- What is Terrorism?: http://cfrterrorism.org/terrorism/
- Patterns of Global Terrorism: http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/websites/www.usis.usemb.se/terror/rptxxxx/ where xxxx is 1995-2002
- Terrorist Group Profiles: http://library.nps.navy.mil/home/tgp/tgpndx.htm
- CIA War on Terrorism: http://www.odci.gov/terrorism/index.html
- FBI Counterterrorism: http://www.fbi.gov/terrorinfo/counterrorism/waronterrorhome.htm
25 April 05
- Theme: Precision Targeting plus Special Forces
- Global Positioning Systems
- Standoff Weaponry and UAVs
- Challenge: Missle Defense and Hunting the SCUDs
- Information Technology and the First Iraqi War: the Triumph of Smart Precision Weapons
- Readings: Precision Targeting plus Special Forces
- Tutorials on GPS: http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html, http://www.topconps.com/gpstutorial/TOC.html
- Articles on Smart Bombs and UAVs: http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/index.html, http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/smart/index.html, http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/uav.htm
- Articles on Scud Hunting and Special Forces: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/gulf/weapons/scud.html, http://www.specialoperations.com/Army/Delta_Force/scuds.html, http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1408/MR1408.ch3.pdf
- Articles on the Patriot Missile and Theatre Missile Defence: http://science.howstuffworks.com/patriot-missile1.htm, http://www.cdi.org/issues/bmd/Patriot.html, http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/gao/im92026.htm, http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/program/patriot.htm
2 May 05
- Theme: Surveillance and Remote Sensing
- Technology of Spy Planes and Spy Satellites
- Space Imaging, SAR (Synthetic Aperature Radar), iSAR (Inverse SAR), and MTI (Moving Terminal Indicator)
- Information Technology and the War in Afganistan and the Second Iraqi War
- Successes and Failures of the American High Technology Arsenal
I. C. B. Dear, M. R. D. Foot (Eds.), The Oxford Companion to
War II, Oxford University Press, Paperback Edition, 2001.