Homework 6: Object Oriented Programming, Linked Lists

Due by 11:59pm on Thursday, October 21


Download hw06.zip. Inside the archive, you will find a file called hw06.py, along with a copy of the ok autograder.

Submission: When you are done, submit with python3 ok --submit. You may submit more than once before the deadline; only the final submission will be scored. Check that you have successfully submitted your code on okpy.org. See Lab 0 for more instructions on submitting assignments.

Using Ok: If you have any questions about using Ok, please refer to this guide.

Readings: You might find the following references useful:

Grading: Homework is graded based on correctness. Each incorrect problem will decrease the total score by one point. There is a homework recovery policy as stated in the syllabus. This homework is out of 2 points.

Required Questions

Getting Started Videos

These videos may provide some helpful direction for tackling the coding problems on this assignment.

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YouTube link


Q1: Vending Machine

In this question you'll create a vending machine that only outputs a single product and provides change when needed.

Create a class called VendingMachine that represents a vending machine for some product. A VendingMachine object returns strings describing its interactions. Remember to match exactly the strings in the doctests -- including punctuation and spacing!

Fill in the VendingMachine class, adding attributes and methods as appropriate, such that its behavior matches the following doctests:

class VendingMachine:
    """A vending machine that vends some product for some price.

    >>> v = VendingMachine('candy', 10)
    >>> v.vend()
    'Nothing left to vend. Please restock.'
    >>> v.add_funds(15)
    'Nothing left to vend. Please restock. Here is your $15.'
    >>> v.restock(2)
    'Current candy stock: 2'
    >>> v.vend()
    'You must add $10 more funds.'
    >>> v.add_funds(7)
    'Current balance: $7'
    >>> v.vend()
    'You must add $3 more funds.'
    >>> v.add_funds(5)
    'Current balance: $12'
    >>> v.vend()
    'Here is your candy and $2 change.'
    >>> v.add_funds(10)
    'Current balance: $10'
    >>> v.vend()
    'Here is your candy.'
    >>> v.add_funds(15)
    'Nothing left to vend. Please restock. Here is your $15.'

    >>> w = VendingMachine('soda', 2)
    >>> w.restock(3)
    'Current soda stock: 3'
    >>> w.restock(3)
    'Current soda stock: 6'
    >>> w.add_funds(2)
    'Current balance: $2'
    >>> w.vend()
    'Here is your soda.'
    "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

You may find Python's formatted string literals, or f-strings useful. A quick example:

>>> feeling = 'love'
>>> course = '61A!'
>>> f'I {feeling} {course}'
'I love 61A!'

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q VendingMachine

If you're curious about alternate methods of string formatting, you can also check out an older method of Python string formatting. A quick example:

>>> ten, twenty, thirty = 10, 'twenty', [30]
>>> '{0} plus {1} is {2}'.format(ten, twenty, thirty)
'10 plus twenty is [30]'

Q2: Mint

A mint is a place where coins are made. In this question, you'll implement a Mint class that can output a Coin with the correct year and worth.

  • Each Mint instance has a year stamp. The update method sets the year stamp to the present_year class attribute of the Mint class.
  • The create method takes a subclass of Coin and returns an instance of that class stamped with the mint's year (which may be different from Mint.present_year if it has not been updated.)
  • A Coin's worth method returns the cents value of the coin plus one extra cent for each year of age beyond 50. A coin's age can be determined by subtracting the coin's year from the present_year class attribute of the Mint class.
class Mint:
    """A mint creates coins by stamping on years.

    The update method sets the mint's stamp to Mint.present_year.

    >>> mint = Mint()
    >>> mint.year
    >>> dime = mint.create(Dime)
    >>> dime.year
    >>> Mint.present_year = 2101  # Time passes
    >>> nickel = mint.create(Nickel)
    >>> nickel.year     # The mint has not updated its stamp yet
    >>> nickel.worth()  # 5 cents + (80 - 50 years)
    >>> mint.update()   # The mint's year is updated to 2101
    >>> Mint.present_year = 2176     # More time passes
    >>> mint.create(Dime).worth()    # 10 cents + (75 - 50 years)
    >>> Mint().create(Dime).worth()  # A new mint has the current year
    >>> dime.worth()     # 10 cents + (155 - 50 years)
    >>> Dime.cents = 20  # Upgrade all dimes!
    >>> dime.worth()     # 20 cents + (155 - 50 years)
    present_year = 2021

    def __init__(self):

    def create(self, kind):
        "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

    def update(self):
        "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

class Coin:
    def __init__(self, year):
        self.year = year

    def worth(self):
        "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

class Nickel(Coin):
    cents = 5

class Dime(Coin):
    cents = 10

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q Mint

Linked Lists

Q3: Store Digits

Write a function store_digits that takes in an integer n and returns a linked list where each element of the list is a digit of n.

Important: Do not use any string manipulation functions like str and reversed

def store_digits(n):
    """Stores the digits of a positive number n in a linked list.

    >>> s = store_digits(1)
    >>> s
    >>> store_digits(2345)
    Link(2, Link(3, Link(4, Link(5))))
    >>> store_digits(876)
    Link(8, Link(7, Link(6)))
    >>> # a check for restricted functions
    >>> import inspect, re
    >>> cleaned = re.sub(r"#.*\\n", '', re.sub(r'"{3}[\s\S]*?"{3}', '', inspect.getsource(store_digits)))
    >>> print("Do not use str or reversed!") if any([r in cleaned for r in ["str", "reversed"]]) else None
    >>> link1 = Link(3, Link(Link(4), Link(5, Link(6))))
    "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q store_digits

Q4: Mutable Mapping

Implement deep_map_mut(fn, link), which applies a function fn onto all elements in the given linked list link. If an element is itself a linked list, apply fn to each of its elements, and so on.

Your implementation should mutate the original linked list. Do not create any new linked lists.

Hint: The built-in isinstance function may be useful.

>>> s = Link(1, Link(2, Link(3, Link(4))))
>>> isinstance(s, Link)
>>> isinstance(s, int)
def deep_map_mut(fn, link):
    """Mutates a deep link by replacing each item found with the
    result of calling fn on the item.  Does NOT create new Links (so
    no use of Link's constructor)

    Does not return the modified Link object.

    >>> link1 = Link(3, Link(Link(4), Link(5, Link(6))))
    >>> # Disallow the use of making new Links before calling deep_map_mut
    >>> Link.__init__, hold = lambda *args: print("Do not create any new Links."), Link.__init__
    >>> try:
    ...     deep_map_mut(lambda x: x * x, link1)
    ... finally:
    ...     Link.__init__ = hold
    >>> print(link1)
    <9 <16> 25 36>
    "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q deep_map_mut

Q5: Two List

Implement a function two_list that takes in two lists and returns a linked list. The first list contains the values that we want to put in the linked list, and the second list contains the number of each corresponding value. Assume both lists are the same size and have a length of 1 or greater. Assume all elements in the second list are greater than 0.

def two_list(vals, amounts):
    Returns a linked list according to the two lists that were passed in. Assume
    vals and amounts are the same size. Elements in vals represent the value, and the
    corresponding element in amounts represents the number of this value desired in the
    final linked list. Assume all elements in amounts are greater than 0. Assume both
    lists have at least one element.

    >>> a = [1, 3, 2]
    >>> b = [1, 1, 1]
    >>> c = two_list(a, b)
    >>> c
    Link(1, Link(3, Link(2)))
    >>> a = [1, 3, 2]
    >>> b = [2, 2, 1]
    >>> c = two_list(a, b)
    >>> c
    Link(1, Link(1, Link(3, Link(3, Link(2)))))
    "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q two_list

Extra Questions

Q6: Next Virahanka Fibonacci Object

Implement the next method of the VirFib class. For this class, the value attribute is a Fibonacci number. The next method returns a VirFib instance whose value is the next Fibonacci number. The next method should take only constant time.

Note that in the doctests, nothing is being printed out. Rather, each call to .next() returns a VirFib instance. The way each VirFib instance is displayed is determined by the return value of its __repr__ method.

Hint: Keep track of the previous number by setting a new instance attribute inside next. You can create new instance attributes for objects at any point, even outside the __init__ method.

class VirFib():
    """A Virahanka Fibonacci number.

    >>> start = VirFib()
    >>> start
    VirFib object, value 0
    >>> start.next()
    VirFib object, value 1
    >>> start.next().next()
    VirFib object, value 1
    >>> start.next().next().next()
    VirFib object, value 2
    >>> start.next().next().next().next()
    VirFib object, value 3
    >>> start.next().next().next().next().next()
    VirFib object, value 5
    >>> start.next().next().next().next().next().next()
    VirFib object, value 8
    >>> start.next().next().next().next().next().next() # Ensure start isn't changed
    VirFib object, value 8

    def __init__(self, value=0):
        self.value = value

    def next(self):
        "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

    def __repr__(self):
        return "VirFib object, value " + str(self.value)

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q VirFib

Q7: Is BST

Write a function is_bst, which takes a Tree t and returns True if, and only if, t is a valid binary search tree, which means that:

  • Each node has at most two children (a leaf is automatically a valid binary search tree)
  • The children are valid binary search trees
  • For every node, the entries in that node's left child are less than or equal to the label of the node
  • For every node, the entries in that node's right child are greater than the label of the node

An example of a BST is:


Note that, if a node has only one child, that child could be considered either the left or right child. You should take this into consideration.

Hint: It may be helpful to write helper functions bst_min and bst_max that return the minimum and maximum, respectively, of a Tree if it is a valid binary search tree.

def is_bst(t):
    """Returns True if the Tree t has the structure of a valid BST.

    >>> t1 = Tree(6, [Tree(2, [Tree(1), Tree(4)]), Tree(7, [Tree(7), Tree(8)])])
    >>> is_bst(t1)
    >>> t2 = Tree(8, [Tree(2, [Tree(9), Tree(1)]), Tree(3, [Tree(6)]), Tree(5)])
    >>> is_bst(t2)
    >>> t3 = Tree(6, [Tree(2, [Tree(4), Tree(1)]), Tree(7, [Tree(7), Tree(8)])])
    >>> is_bst(t3)
    >>> t4 = Tree(1, [Tree(2, [Tree(3, [Tree(4)])])])
    >>> is_bst(t4)
    >>> t5 = Tree(1, [Tree(0, [Tree(-1, [Tree(-2)])])])
    >>> is_bst(t5)
    >>> t6 = Tree(1, [Tree(4, [Tree(2, [Tree(3)])])])
    >>> is_bst(t6)
    >>> t7 = Tree(2, [Tree(1, [Tree(5)]), Tree(4)])
    >>> is_bst(t7)
    "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q is_bst