Lab 14: Final Review lab14.zip

Due by 11:59pm on Wednesday, December 1.

Starter Files

Download lab14.zip. Inside the archive, you will find starter files for the questions in this lab, along with a copy of the Ok autograder.

This lab has many files. Remember to write in lab14.scm for the Scheme questions, lab14.sql for the SQL questions, lab14.lark for the BNF question, and lab14.py for all other questions.

Required Questions

Trees

Q1: Prune Min

Write a function that prunes a Tree t mutatively. t and its branches always have zero or two branches. For the trees with two branches, reduce the number of branches from two to one by keeping the branch that has the smaller label value. Do nothing with trees with zero branches.

Prune the tree in a direction of your choosing (top down or bottom up). The result should be a linear tree.

def prune_min(t):
"""Prune the tree mutatively.

>>> t1 = Tree(6)
>>> prune_min(t1)
>>> t1
Tree(6)
>>> t2 = Tree(6, [Tree(3), Tree(4)])
>>> prune_min(t2)
>>> t2
Tree(6, [Tree(3)])
>>> t3 = Tree(6, [Tree(3, [Tree(1), Tree(2)]), Tree(5, [Tree(3), Tree(4)])])
>>> prune_min(t3)
>>> t3
Tree(6, [Tree(3, [Tree(1)])])
"""

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q prune_min

Scheme

Q2: Split

Implement split-at, which takes a list lst and a non-negative number n as input and returns a pair new such that (car new) is the first n elements of lst and (cdr new) is the remaining elements of lst. If n is greater than the length of lst, (car new) should be lst and (cdr new) should be nil.

scm> (car (split-at '(2 4 6 8 10) 3))
(2 4 6)
scm> (cdr (split-at '(2 4 6 8 10) 3))
(8 10)
(define (split-at lst n)
'YOUR-CODE-HERE
)

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q split-at

Q3: Compose All

Implement compose-all, which takes a list of one-argument functions and returns a one-argument function that applies each function in that list in turn to its argument. For example, if func is the result of calling compose-all on a list of functions (f g h), then (func x) should be equivalent to the result of calling (h (g (f x))).

scm> (define (square x) (* x x))
square
scm> (define (add-one x) (+ x 1))
scm> (define (double x) (* x 2))
double
scm> (define composed (compose-all (list double square add-one)))
composed
scm> (composed 1)
5
scm> (composed 2)
17
(define (compose-all funcs)
'YOUR-CODE-HERE
)

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q compose-all

Regex

Write a regular expression that parses strings and returns any expressions which contain the first line of a US mailing address.

US mailing addresses typically contain a block number, which is a sequence of 3-5 digits, following by a street name. The street name can consist of multiple words but will always end with a street type abbreviation, which itself is a sequence of 2-5 English letters. The street name can also optionally start with a cardinal direction ("N", "E", "W", "S"). Everything should be properly capitalized.

Proper capitalization means that the first letter of each name is capitalized. It is fine to have things like "WeirdCApitalization" match.

See the doctests for some examples.

"""
Finds and returns expressions in text that represent the first line

>>> address_oneline("110 Sproul Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720")
['110 Sproul Hall']
>>> address_oneline("What's at 39177 Farwell Dr? Is there a 39177 Nearwell Dr?")
['39177 Farwell Dr', '39177 Nearwell Dr']
>>> address_oneline("I just landed at 780 N McDonnell Rd, and I need to get to 1880-ish University Avenue. Help!")
['780 N McDonnell Rd']
['123 Le Roy Ave']
[]
[]
"""
block_number = r'___'
cardinal_dir = r'___' # whitespace is important!
street = r'___'
type_abbr = r'___'
street_name = f"{cardinal_dir}{street}{type_abbr}"
return re.findall(f"{block_number} {street_name}", text)

Use Ok to test your code:

Usage

First, check that a file named sqlite_shell.py exists alongside the assignment files. If you don't see it, or if you encounter problems with it, scroll down to the Troubleshooting section to see how to download an official precompiled SQLite binary before proceeding.

You can start an interactive SQLite session in your Terminal or Git Bash with the following command:

python3 sqlite_shell.py

While the interpreter is running, you can type .help to see some of the commands you can run.

To exit out of the SQLite interpreter, type .exit or .quit or press Ctrl-C. Remember that if you see ...> after pressing enter, you probably forgot a ;.

You can also run all the statements in a .sql file by doing the following: (Here we're using the lab13.sql file as an example.)

1. Runs your code and then exits SQLite immediately afterwards.

python3 sqlite_shell.py < lab13.sql
2. Runs your code and then opens an interactive SQLite session, which is similar to running Python code with the interactive -i flag.

python3 sqlite_shell.py --init lab13.sql

In each question below, you will define a new table based on the following tables. The first defines the names, opening, and closing hours of great pizza places in Berkeley. The second defines typical meal times (for college students). A pizza place is open for a meal if the meal time is at or within the open and close times.

Your tables should still perform correctly even if the values in these tables were to change. Don't just hard-code the output to each query.

Q5: Opening Times

You'd like to have lunch before 1pm. Create a opening table with the names of all Pizza places that open before 1pm, listed in reverse alphabetical order.

-- Pizza places that open before 1pm in alphabetical order
create table opening as
SELECT "REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR SOLUTION";

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q opening

Q6: Double Pizza

If two meals are more than 6 hours apart, then there's nothing wrong with going to the same pizza place for both, right? Create a double table with three columns. The first columns is the earlier meal, the second is the later meal, and the third is the name of a pizza place. Only include rows that describe two meals that are more than 6 hours apart and a pizza place that is open for both of the meals. The rows may appear in any order.

-- Two meals at the same place
create table double as
SELECT "REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR SOLUTION";
-- Example:
select * from double where name="Sliver";
-- Expected output:
--   breakfast|dinner|Sliver

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q double

Recommended Questions

The following problems are not required for credit on this lab but may help you prepare for the final.

Objects

Let's implement a game called Election. In this game, two players compete to try and earn the most votes. Both players start with 0 votes and 100 popularity.

The two players alternate turns, and the first player starts. Each turn, the current player chooses an action. There are two types of actions:

• The player can debate, and either gain or lose 50 popularity. If the player has popularity p1 and the other player has popularity p2, then the probability that the player gains 50 popularity is max(0.1, p1 / (p1 + p2)) Note that the max causes the probability to never be lower than 0.1.
• The player can give a speech. If the player has popularity p1 and the other player has popularity p2, then the player gains p1 // 10 votes and popularity and the other player loses p2 // 10 popularity.

The game ends when a player reaches 50 votes, or after a total of 10 turns have been played (each player has taken 5 turns). Whoever has more votes at the end of the game is the winner!

Q7: Player

First, let's implement the Player class. Fill in the debate and speech methods, that take in another Player other, and implement the correct behavior as detailed above. Here are two additional things to keep in mind:

• In the debate method, you should call the provided random function, which returns a random float between 0 and 1. The player should gain 50 popularity if the random number is smaller than the probability described above, and lose 50 popularity otherwise.
• Neither players' popularity should ever become negative. If this happens, set it equal to 0 instead.
### Phase 1: The Player Class
class Player:
"""
>>> random = make_test_random()
>>> p1 = Player('Hill')
>>> p2 = Player('Don')
>>> p1.popularity
100
>>> p1.debate(p2)  # random() should return 0.0
>>> p1.popularity
150
>>> p2.popularity
100
0
>>> p2.speech(p1)
10
>>> p2.popularity
110
>>> p1.popularity
135

"""
def __init__(self, name):
self.name = name
self.popularity = 100

def debate(self, other):

def speech(self, other):

def choose(self, other):
return self.speech

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q Player

Q8: Game

Now, implement the Game class. Fill in the play method, which should alternate between the two players, starting with p1, and have each player take one turn at a time. The choose method in the Player class returns the method, either debate or speech, that should be called to perform the action.

In addition, fill in the winner property method, which should return the player with more votes, or None if the players are tied.

### Phase 2: The Game Class
class Game:
"""
>>> p1, p2 = Player('Hill'), Player('Don')
>>> g = Game(p1, p2)
>>> winner = g.play()
>>> p1 is winner
True

"""
def __init__(self, player1, player2):
self.p1 = player1
self.p2 = player2
self.turn = 0

def play(self):
while not self.game_over:
return self.winner

@property
def game_over(self):

@property
def winner(self):

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q Game

Q9: New Players

The choose method in the Player class is boring, because it always returns the speech method. Let's implement two new classes that inherit from Player, but have more interesting choose methods.

Implement the choose method in the AggressivePlayer class, which returns the debate method if the player's popularity is less than or equal to other's popularity, and speech otherwise. Also implement the choose method in the CautiousPlayer class, which returns the debate method if the player's popularity is 0, and speech otherwise.

### Phase 3: New Players
class AggressivePlayer(Player):
"""
>>> random = make_test_random()
>>> p1, p2 = AggressivePlayer('Don'), Player('Hill')
>>> g = Game(p1, p2)
>>> winner = g.play()
>>> p1 is winner
True

"""
def choose(self, other):

class CautiousPlayer(Player):
"""
>>> random = make_test_random()
>>> p1, p2 = CautiousPlayer('Hill'), AggressivePlayer('Don')
>>> p1.popularity = 0
>>> p1.choose(p2) == p1.debate
True
>>> p1.popularity = 1
>>> p1.choose(p2) == p1.debate
False

"""
def choose(self, other):

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q AggressivePlayer
python3 ok -q CautiousPlayer

Tree Recursion

Define the function add_trees, which takes in two trees and returns a new tree where each corresponding node from the first tree is added with the node from the second tree. If a node at any particular position is present in one tree but not the other, it should be present in the new tree as well.

Hint: You may want to use the built-in zip function to iterate over multiple sequences at once.

"""
>>> numbers = Tree(1,
...                [Tree(2,
...                      [Tree(3),
...                       Tree(4)]),
...                 Tree(5,
...                      [Tree(6,
...                            [Tree(7)]),
...                       Tree(8)])])
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
5
4
5
>>> print(add_trees(Tree(2, [Tree(3)]), Tree(2, [Tree(3), Tree(4)])))
4
6
4
>>> print(add_trees(Tree(2, [Tree(3, [Tree(4), Tree(5)])]), \
Tree(2, [Tree(3, [Tree(4)]), Tree(5)])))
4
6
8
5
5
"""

Use Ok to test your code:

When we write recursive functions acting on Links, we often find that they have the following form:

return <Base case>
else:

In the spirit of abstraction, we want to factor out this commonly seen pattern. It turns out that we can define an abstraction called fold that do this.

A linked list can be represented as a series of Link constructors, where Link.rest is either another linked list or the empty list.

We represent such a list in the diagram below:

In this diagram, the recursive list

is represented with : as the constructor and [] as the empty list.

We define a function foldr that takes in a function f which takes two arguments, and a value z. foldr essentially replaces the Link constructor with f, and the empty list with z. It then evaluates the expression and returns the result. This is equivalent to:

f(1, f(2, f(3, f(4, f(5, z)))))

We call this operation a right fold.

Similarly we can define a left fold foldl that folds a list starting from the beginning, such that the function f will be applied this way:

f(f(f(f(f(z, 1), 2), 3), 4), 5)

Also notice that a left fold is equivalent to Python's reduce with a starting value.

Q11: Fold Left

Write the left fold function by filling in the blanks.

""" Left fold
>>> foldl(lst, sub, 0) # (((0 - 3) - 2) - 1)
-6
>>> foldl(lst, add, 0) # (((0 + 3) + 2) + 1)
6
>>> foldl(lst, mul, 1) # (((1 * 3) * 2) * 1)
6
"""
return z
return foldl(______, ______, ______)

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q foldl

Q12: Fold Right

Now write the right fold function.

""" Right fold
>>> foldr(lst, sub, 0) # (3 - (2 - (1 - 0)))
2
>>> foldr(lst, add, 0) # (3 + (2 + (1 + 0)))
6
>>> foldr(lst, mul, 1) # (3 * (2 * (1 * 1)))
6
"""

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q foldr

Regex

Q13: Basic URL Validation

In this problem, we will write a regular expression which matches a URL. URLs look like the following:

For example, in the link https://cs61a.org/resources/#regular-expressions, we would have:

• Scheme: https
• Domain Name: cs61a.org
• Path to the file: /resources/
• Anchor: #regular-expressions

The port and parameters are not present in this example and you will not be required to match them for this problem.

You can reference this documentation from MDN if you're curious about the various parts of a URL.

For this problem, a valid domain name consists of any sequence of letters, numbers, dashes, and periods. For a URL to be "valid," it must contain a valid domain name and will optionally have a scheme, path, and anchor.

A valid scheme will either be http or https.

Valid paths start with a slash and then must be a valid path to a file or directory. This means they should match something like /composingprograms.html or path/to/file but not /composing.programs.html/.

A valid anchor starts with #. While they are more complicated, for this problem assume that valid anchors will then be followed by letters, numbers, hyphens, or underscores.

Hint 1: You can use \ to escape special characters in regex.

>Hint 2: The provided code already handles making the scheme, path, and anchor optional by using non-capturing groups.

def match_url(text):
"""
>>> match_url("https://cs61a.org/resources/#regular-expressions")
True
>>> match_url("https://pythontutor.com/composingprograms.html")
True
>>> match_url("https://pythontutor.com/should/not.match.this")
False
False
>>> match_url("http://insecure.net")
True
>>> match_url("htp://domain.org")
False
"""
scheme = r'___'
domain = r'___'
path = r'___'
anchor = r'___'
return bool(re.match(rf"^(?:{scheme})?{domain}(?:{path})?(?:{anchor})?\$", text))

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q match_url

BNF

Q14: Simple CSV

CSV, which stands for "Comma Separated Values," is a file format to store columnar information. We will write a BNF grammar for a small subset of CSV, which we will call SimpleCSV.

Create a grammar that reads SimpleCSV, where a file contains rows of words separated by commas. Words are characters [a-zA-Z] (and may be blank!) Spaces are not allowed in the file.

Here is an example of a 2-line SimpleCSV file:

first,second,third
fourth,fifth,sixth,,eighth

We should parse out the following as a result:

start
lines
line
word  first
word  second
word  third
newline
line
word  fourth
word  fifth
word  sixth
word
word  eighth
lines: "null"

line: "null"

word: "null"

newline: "\n"

%import common.WORD

Use Ok to test your code:

python3 ok -q simple_csv