*Due by 5pm on Wednesday, 2/5*.

**Submission.** See the online submission instructions.

**Readings.** All problems in this homework can be solved with the subset of
Python 3 introduced in sections
1.2,
1.3,
1.4, and
1.5
of the Composing Programs online text.

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**Q1.** We've seen that we can give new names to existing functions. Fill in the
blanks in the following function definition for adding `a` to the absolute
value of `b`, without calling `abs`:

from operator import add, sub def a_plus_abs_b(a, b): """Return a+abs(b), but without calling abs. >>> a_plus_abs_b(2, 3) 5 >>> a_plus_abs_b(2, -3) 5 """ if b < 0: op = _____ else: op = _____ return op(a, b)

**Q2.** Write a function that takes three *positive* numbers and returns the
sum of the squares of the two largest numbers. Use only a single expression
for the body of the function:

def two_of_three(a, b, c): """Return x*x + y*y, where x and y are the two largest of a, b, c. >>> two_of_three(1, 2, 3) 13 >>> two_of_three(5, 3, 1) 34 >>> two_of_three(10, 2, 8) 164 >>> two_of_three(5, 5, 5) 50 """ "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

**Q3.** Let's try to write a function that does the same thing as an `if`
statement:

def if_function(condition, true_result, false_result): """Return true_result if condition is a true value, and false_result otherwise.""" if condition: return true_result else: return false_result

This function actually does *not* do the same thing as an `if` statement in
all cases. To prove this fact, write functions `c`, `t`, and `f` such
that `with_if_statement` returns the number `1`, but `with_if_function`
does not:

def with_if_statement(): if c(): return t() else: return f() def with_if_function(): return if_function(c(), t(), f()) def c(): "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***" def t(): "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***" def f(): "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

**Q4.** Douglas Hofstadter’s Pulitzer-prize-winning book, *Gödel, Escher, Bach*,
poses the following mathematical puzzle.

- Pick a positive integer
`n`as the start. - If
`n`is even, divide it by 2. - If
`n`is odd, multiply it by 3 and add 1. - Continue this process until
`n`is 1.

The number `n` will travel up and down but eventually end at 1 (at least for
all numbers that have ever been tried -- nobody has ever proved that the
sequence will terminate). Analogously, hailstone travels up and down in the
atmosphere before eventually landing on earth.

The sequence of values of `n` is often called a Hailstone sequence, because
hailstones also travel up and down in the atmosphere before falling to earth.
Write a function that takes a single argument with formal parameter name `n`,
prints out the hailstone sequence starting at `n`, and returns the number of
steps in the sequence:

def hailstone(n): """Print the hailstone sequence starting at n and return its length. >>> a = hailstone(10) # Seven elements are 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1 10 5 16 8 4 2 1 >>> a 7 """ "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

Hailstone sequences can get quite long! Try 27. What's the longest you can find?