Project 4: A Scheme Interpreter

Money Tree

Eval calls apply,
which just calls eval again!
When does it all end?

Table of Contents


In this project, you will develop an interpreter for a subset of the Scheme language. As you proceed, think about the issues that arise in the design of a programming language; many quirks of languages are byproducts of implementation decisions in interpreters and compilers. The subset of the language used in this project is described in the functional programming section of Composing Programs.

You will also implement some small programs in Scheme. Scheme is a simple but powerful functional language. You should find that much of what you have learned about Python transfers cleanly to Scheme as well as to other programming languages. To learn more about Scheme, you can read Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs online for free. Examples from Chapters 1 and 2 are included as test cases for this project. Language features from Chapters 3, 4, and 5 are not part of this project, but of course you are welcome to extend your interpreter to implement more of the language. Since we only include a subset of the language, your interpreter will not exactly match the behavior of other interpreters such as STk.

The project concludes with an open-ended graphics contest that challenges you to produce recursive images in only a few lines of Scheme. As an example, the picture above abstractly depicts all the ways of making change for $0.50 using U.S. currency. All flowers appear at the end of a branch with length 50. Small angles in a branch indicate an additional coin, while large angles indicate a new currency denomination. In the contest, you too will have the chance to unleash your inner recursive artist.

This project includes several files, but all of your changes will be made to the first four:,, questions.scm, and tests.scm. You can download all of the project code as a zip archive, which contains the following files:

You'll work in a team of two people, Partner A and Partner B. In each part, you will do some of the work separately and some together with your partner. For example, if a problem is marked 5A, then it is a solo problem for Partner A. Both partners should read, think about, and understand the solution to all questions. Feel free to help each other on the solo questions. If you choose to work on the whole project alone, you must complete all questions yourself.

In Parts I and II, you will develop the interpreter in several stages:

In Part III, you will implement Scheme procedures.


This is a 2-week project. You may work with one other partner. You should not share your code with students who are not your partner or copy from anyone else's solutions.

Start early! The amount of time it takes to complete a project (or any program) is unpredictable.

You are not alone! Ask for help early and often -- the TAs, readers, lab assistants, and your fellow students are here to help. Try attending office hours or posting on Piazza.

In the end, you will submit one project for both partners. The project is worth 30 points. 28 points are assigned for correctness, and 2 points for the overall composition of your program.

You will turn in the following files:

You do not need to modify or turn in any other files to complete the project. To submit the project, run the following command. You will be able to view your submissions on the OK dashboard.

python3 ok --submit

For the functions that we ask you to complete, there may be some initial code that we provide. If you would rather not use that code, feel free to delete it and start from scratch. You may also add new function definitions as you see fit.

However, please do not modify any other functions. Doing so may result in your code failing our autograder tests. Also, please do not change any function signatures (names, argument order, or number of arguments).


Throughout this project, you should be testing the correctness of your code. It is good practice to test often, so that it is easy to isolate any problems.

We have provided an autograder called ok to help you with testing your code and tracking your progress. The first time you run the autograder, you will be asked to log in with your account using your web browser. Please do so. Each time you run ok, it will back up your work and progress on our servers.

The primary purpose of ok is to test your implementations, but there is a catch. At first, the test cases are locked. To unlock tests, run the following command from your terminal:

python3 ok -u

This command will start an interactive prompt that looks like:

Assignment: Project 4: A Scheme Interpreter
OK, version ...

Unlocking tests

At each "? ", type what you would expect the output to be.
Type exit() to quit

Question 0 > Suite 1 > Case 1
(cases remaining: 1)

>>> Code here

At the ?, you can type what you expect the output to be. If you are correct, then this test case will be available the next time you run the autograder.

The idea is to understand conceptually what your program should do first, before you start writing any code.

Once you have unlocked some tests and written some code, you can check the correctness of your program using the tests that you have unlocked:

python3 ok

To help with debugging, ok can also be run in interactive mode:

python3 ok -i

If an error occurs, the autograder will start an interactive Python session in the environment used for the test, so that you can explore the state of the environment.

Most of the time, you will want to focus on a particular question. Use the -q option as directed in the problems below.

The tests folder is used to store autograder tests, so make sure not to modify it. You may lose all your unlocking progress if you do. If you need to get a fresh copy, you can download the zip archive and copy it over, but you will need to start unlocking from scratch.

Details of Scheme

Read-Eval-Print. The interpreter reads Scheme expressions, evaluates them, and displays the results.

scm> 2
scm> (+ 2 3)
scm> (((lambda (f) (lambda (x) (f f x)))
       (lambda (f k) (if (zero? k) 1 (* k (f f (- k 1)))))) 5)

The starter code for your Scheme interpreter in can successfully evaluate the first expression above, since it consists of a single number. The second (a primitive call) and the third (a computation of 5 factorial) will not work just yet.

Load. Our load procedure differs from standard Scheme in that we use a symbol for the file name. For example, to load tests.scm, evaluate the following call expression.

scm> (load 'tests)

Symbols. Unlike some implementations of Scheme, in this project numbers and boolean values cannot be used as symbols. Also, symbols are always lowercased. This is illustrated in the following example, which won't work until a little bit later:

scm> (define 2 3)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  0 (#define 2 3)
Error: bad argument to define
scm> 'Hello

Turtle Graphics. In addition to standard Scheme procedures, we include procedure calls to the Python turtle package. This will come in handy in Part IV, for the contest.

You can read the turtle module documentation online.

Note: The turtle Python module may not be installed by default on your personal computer. However, the turtle module is installed on the instructional machines. So, if you wish to create turtle graphics for this project (i.e. for the contest), then you'll either need to setup turtle on your personal computer or use university computers.


Testing. The tests.scm file contains a long list of example Scheme expressions and their expected values.

(+ 1 2)
; expect 3
(/ 1 0)
; expect Error

You can compare the output of your interpreter to the expected output by running:


For the example above, will evaluate (+ 1 2) using your code in, then output a test failure if 3 is not returned as the value. The second example tests for an error (but not the specific error message.

Only a small subset of tests are designated to run by default because tests.scm contains an (exit) call near the beginning, which halts testing. As you complete more of the project, you should move or remove this call.

Note: your interpreter doesn't know how to exit until Problems 3 and 4 are completed; all tests will run until then.

Important: As you proceed in the project, add new tests to the top of tests.scm to verify the behavior of your implementation. Your composition score for this project will depend on whether or not you have tested your implementation in ways that are different from the ok tests.

Exceptions. As you develop your Scheme interpreter, you may find that Python raises various uncaught exceptions when evaluating Scheme expressions. As a result, your Scheme interpreter will halt. Some of these may be the results of bugs in your program, and some may be useful indications of errors in user programs. The former should be fixed (of course!) and the latter should be handled, usually by raising a SchemeError. All SchemeError exceptions are handled and printed as error messages by the read_eval_print_loop function in Ideally, there should never be unhandled Python exceptions for any input to your interpreter.

Running Your Scheme Interpreter

To run your Scheme interpreter in an interactive session, type:


You can use your Scheme interpreter to evaluate the expressions in an input file by passing the file name as a command-line argument to

python3 tests.scm

Currently, your Scheme interpreter can handle a few simple expressions, such as:

scm> 1
scm> 42
scm> true

To exit the Scheme interpreter, press Ctrl-d or evaluate the exit procedure (after completing problems 3 and 4):

scm> (exit)

Part I: The Reader

The function scheme_read in parses a Buffer (see instance that returns valid Scheme tokens when its current and pop methods are invoked. This function returns the next full Scheme expression in the src buffer, using this representation:

Scheme Data Type Our Internal Representation
Numbers Python's built-in int and float data types.
Symbols Python's built-in string data type.
Booleans (#t, #f) Python's built-in True, False values.
Pairs The Pair class, defined in
nil The nil object, defined in

Problem 1 (1 pt)

Complete the scheme_read function in by adding support for quotation. This function selects behavior based on the type of the next token:

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 01 -u
python3 ok -q 01

Problem 2 (2 pt)

Complete the read_tail function in by adding support for dotted lists. A dotted list in Scheme is not necessarily a well-formed list, but instead has an arbitrary second attribute that may be any Scheme value.

The read_tail function expects to read the rest of a list or dotted list, assuming the open parenthesis of that list has already been popped by scheme_read.

Consider the case of calling scheme_read on input "(1 2 . 3)". The read_tail function will be called on the suffix "1 2 . 3)", which is

Thus, read_tail would return Pair(1, Pair(2, 3)).

Hint: In order to verify that only one element follows a dot, after encountering a '.', read one additional expression and then check to see that a closing parenthesis follows.

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 02 -u
python3 ok -q 02

You should also run the doctests for (python3 -m doctest and test your parser interactively by running python3 Every time you type in a value into the prompt, both the str and repr values of the parsed expression are printed.

read> 42
str : 42
repr: 42
read> '(1 2 3)
str : (quote (1 2 3))
repr: Pair('quote', Pair(Pair(1, Pair(2, Pair(3, nil))), nil))
read> nil
str : ()
repr: nil
read> '()
str : (quote ())
repr: Pair('quote', Pair(nil, nil))
read> (1 (2 3) (4 (5)))
str : (1 (2 3) (4 (5)))
repr: Pair(1, Pair(Pair(2, Pair(3, nil)), Pair(Pair(4, Pair(Pair(5, nil), nil)), nil)))
read> (1 (9 8) . 7)
str : (1 (9 8) . 7)
repr: Pair(1, Pair(Pair(9, Pair(8, nil)), 7))
read> (hi there . (cs . (student)))
str : (hi there cs student)
repr: Pair('hi', Pair('there', Pair('cs', Pair('student', nil))))

Part II: The Evaluator

All further changes to the interpreter will be made in For each question, add a few tests to the top of tests.scm to verify the behavior of your implementation.

In the implementation given to you, In fact, the evaluator can only evaluate self-evaluating expressions: numbers, booleans, and nil.

Read the first two sections of, called Eval/Apply and Environemnts. the scheme_eval and scheme_apply functions are complete, but most of the functions or methods they use are not yet implemented. The apply_primitive and make_call_frame functions assist in applying built-in and user-define procedures, respectively. The Frame class implements an environment frame. The LambdaProcedure class represents user-defined procedures. These are all of the essential components of the interpreter; the rest of defines special forms and input/output behaviour.

Test your understanding of how these components fit together by unlocking the tests for eval_apply.

python3 ok -q eval_apply -u

Some Core Functionality

Problem 3 (2 pt)

Implement the lookup method of the Frame class. It takes a symbol (Python string) and returns the value bound to that name in the first Frame of the environment in which that name is found. A Frame represents an environment via two instance attributes:

Your lookup implementation should:

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 03 -u
python3 ok -q 03

After you complete this problem, you should be able to look up built-in procedure names.

scm> +
scm> odd?
scm> display

However, your Scheme interpreter will still not be able to apply these procedures. Let's fix that.

Problem 4 (2 pt)

Implement apply_primitive, which is called by scheme_apply. Primitive procedures are applied by calling a corresponding Python function that implements the procedure.

Scheme primitive procedures are represented as instances of the PrimitiveProcedure class, defined in A PrimitiveProcedure has two instance attributes:

To see a list of all Scheme primitive procedures used in the project, look in the file. Any function decorated with @primitive will be added to the globally-defined _PRIMITIVES list.

The apply_primitive function takes a PrimitiveProcedure instance, a Scheme list of argument values, and the current environment. Your implementation should:

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 04 -u
python3 ok -q 04

Your interpreter should now be able to evaluate primitive procedure calls, giving you the functionality of the Calculator language and more.

scm> (+ 1 2)
scm> (* 3 4 (- 5 2) 1)
scm> (odd? 31)

Problem 5A (1 pt)

There are two missing parts in the do_define_form function, which handles the (defineĀ ...) special forms. Implement just the first part, which binds names to values but does not create new procedures. do_define_form should return the name after performing the binding.

scm> (define tau (* 2 3.1415926))

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 05A -u
python3 ok -q 05A

You should now be able to give names to values and evaluate the resulting symbols.

scm> (define x 15)
scm> (define y (* 2 x))
scm> y
scm> (+ y (* y 2) 1)
scm> (define x 20)
scm> x
scm> (eval (define tau 6.28))

Problem 6B (1 pt)

Implement the do_quote_form function, which evaluates the quote special form.

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 06B -u
python3 ok -q 06B

You should now be able to evaluate quoted expressions.

scm> 'hello
scm> '(1 . 2)
(1 . 2)
scm> '(1 (2 three . (4 . 5)))
(1 (2 three 4 . 5))
scm> (car '(a b))
scm> (eval (cons 'car '('(1 2))))

At this point in the project, your Scheme interpreter should support the following features:

User-Defined Procedures

User-defined procedures are represented as instances of the LambdaProcedure class. A LambdaProcedure instance has three instance attributes:

Problem 7 (2 pt)

Implement the eval_all function called from do_begin_form, which will complete the implementation of the begin special form. A begin expression is evaluated by evaluating all sub-expressions in order. The value of the begin expression is the value of the final sub-expression.

scm> (begin (+ 2 3) (+ 5 6))
scm> (define x (begin (display 3) (newline) (+ 2 3)))
scm> (+ x 3)
scm> (begin (print 3) '(+ 2 3))
(+ 2 3)

If eval_all is passed an empty list of expressions (nil), then it should return the special value okay, which represents an undefined Scheme value.

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 07 -u
python3 ok -q 07

Problem 8 (1 pt)

Implement the do_lambda_form method, which creates LambdaProcedure instances by evaluating lambda expressions. While you cannot call a user-defined procedure yet, you can verify that you have created the procedure correctly by evaluating a lambda expression:

scm> (lambda (x y) (+ x y))
(lambda (x y) (+ x y))

In Scheme, it is legal to place more than one expression in the body of a procedure (although zero body expressions is disallowed). The body attribute of a LambdaProcedure instance is a Scheme list of body expressions.

Test your implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 08

Problem 9A (2 pt)

Currently, your Scheme interpreter is able to bind symbols to user-defined procedures in the following manner:

scm> (define f (lambda (x) (* x 2)))

However, we'd like to be able to use the shorthand form of defining named procedures:

scm> (define (f x) (* x 2))

Modify the do_define_form function so that it correctly handles the shorthand procedure definition form above. Make sure that it can handle multi-expression bodies.

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 09A -u
python3 ok -q 09A

You should now find that defined procedures evaluate to lambda procedures.

scm> (define (square x) (* x x))
scm> square
(lambda (x) (* x x))

Problem 10 (2 pt)

Implement the make_child_frame method of the Frame class, which:

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 10 -u
python3 ok -q 10

Problem 11B (2 pt)

Implement the check_formals function to raise an error whenever the Scheme list of formal parameters passed to it is invalid. Raise a SchemeError if the list of formals is not a well-formed list of symbols or if any symbol is repeated.

Hint: The scheme_symbolp function in returns whether a value is a Scheme symbol.

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 11B -u
python3 ok -q 11B

Problem 12 (2 pt)

Implement the make_call_frame function called by scheme_apply (at the end of the Eval/Apply section). It should create a new Frame instance using the make_child_frame method of the appropriate parent frame, binding formal parameters to argument values.

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 12 -u
python3 ok -q 12

At this point in the project, your Scheme interpreter should support the following features:

Now is an excellent time to revisit the tests in tests.scm and ensure that you pass the tests that involve definition (Sections 1.1.2 and 1.1.4). You should also add additional tests of your own at the top of tests.scm to verify that your interpreter is behaving as you expect.

Special Forms

Logical special forms include if, and, or, and cond. These expressions are special because not all of their sub-expressions may be evaluated.

In Scheme, only False is a false value. All other values are true values. You can test whether a value is a true value or a false value using the provided Python functions scheme_true and scheme_false, defined in (Note that Scheme traditionally uses #f to indicate a false value, which is equivalent to false or False. Similarly, true and True and #t are all equilvalent.)

Problem 13 (1 pt)

Implement do_if_form so that if expressions are evaluated correctly. This function should evaluate either the second (consequent) or third (alternative) expression of the if expression, depending on whether the value of the first (predicate) expression is true.

scm> (if (= 4 2) 'a 'b)
scm> (if (= 4 4) (* 1 2) (+ 3 4))

It is legal to pass in just two expressions to the if special form. In this case, you should return the second expression if the first expression evaluates to a true value. Otherwise, return the special okay value, which represents an undefined value. Hint: okay is defined in and imported to, so you can refer to it directly as okay in your Python code. The value okay evaluates to itself.

scm> (if (= 4 2) 'a)

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 13 -u
python3 ok -q 13

Problem 14B (2 pt)

Implement do_and_form and do_or_form so that and and or expressions are evaluated correctly.

The logical forms and and or are short-circuiting. For and, your interpreter should evaluate each sub-expression from left to right, and if any of these evaluates to a false value, then False is returned. Otherwise, it should return the value of the last sub-expression. If there are no sub-expressions in an and expression, it evaluates to True.

scm> (and)
scm> (and 4 5 6)  ; all operands are true values
scm> (and 4 5 (+ 3 3))
scm> (and True False 42 (/ 1 0))  ; short-circuiting behavior of and

For or, evaluate each sub-expression from left to right. If any evaluates to a true value, return that value. Otherwise, return False. If there are no sub-expressions in an or expression, it evaluates to False.

scm> (or)
scm> (or 5 2 1)  ; 5 is a true value
scm> (or False (- 1 1) 1)  ; 0 is a true value in Scheme
scm> (or 4 True (/ 1 0))  ; short-circuiting behavior of or

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 14B -u
python3 ok -q 14B

Problem 15A (2 pt)

Implement do_cond_form so that it returns the value of the first result sub-expression corresponding to a true predicate, or the sub-expression corresponding to else. Your implementation should match the following examples and the additional tests in tests.scm.

scm> (cond ((= 4 3) 'nope)
           ((= 4 4) 'hi)
           (else 'wait))
scm> (cond ((= 4 3) 'wat)
           ((= 4 4))
           (else 'hm))
scm> (cond ((= 4 4) 'here (+ 40 2))
           (else 'wat 0))

Hint: For the last example, where the body of a cond case has multiple expressions, use eval_all.

If the body of a cond case is empty for a true-valued predicate, then do_cond_form should return the value of the predicate.

scm> (cond (12))
scm> (cond ((= 4 3))

The value of a cond is undefined if there are no true predicates and no else. In such a case, do_cond_form should return okay.

scm> (cond (False 1) (False 2))

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 15A -u
python3 ok -q 15A

Problem 16 (2 pt)

The let special form binds symbols to values locally, giving them their initial values. For example:

scm> (define x 'hi)
scm> (define y 'bye)
scm> (let ((x 42)
           (y (* 5 10)))
       (list x y))
(42 50)
scm> (list x y)
(hi bye)

Implement make_let_frame, which returns a child frame of env that binds the symbol in each element of bindings to the value of the corresponding expression. The check_form function can be used to check the structure of each binding.

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 16 -u
python3 ok -q 16

Problem 17 (2 pt)

Implement do_mu_form to evaluate the mu special form, a non-standard Scheme expression type. A mu expression is similar to a lambda expression, but evaluates to a MuProcedure instance that is dynamically scoped. The MuProcedure class has been provided for you.

Additionally, update make_call_frame so that the call frame used to evaluate the body of a MuProcedure is dynamically scoped. Calling a LambdaProcedure uses lexical scoping: the parent of the new call frame is the environment in which the procedure was defined. Calling a MuProcedure created by a mu expression uses dynamic scoping: the parent of the new call frame is the environment in which the call expression was evaluated. As a result, a MuProcedure does not need to store an environment as an instance attribute. It can refer to names in the environment from which it was called.

scm> (define f (mu (x) (+ x y)))
scm> (define g (lambda (x y) (f (+ x x))))
scm> (g 3 7)

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 17 -u
python3 ok -q 17

Your Scheme interpreter implementation is now complete. You should have been adding tests to the top of tests.scm as you did each problem. These tests will be evaluated as part of your composition score for the project.

Part III: Write Some Scheme

Not only is your Scheme interpreter itself a tree-recursive program, but it is flexible enough to evaluate other recursive programs. Implement the following procedures in Scheme in the questions.scm file.

Problem 18 (1 pt)

Implement the zip procedure, which takes in a list of pairs and converts it into a pair of lists, where the first list contains all of the first elements of the original pairs, and the second list contains all of the second elements.

The "pairs" in the input are well-formed two-element lists, not Scheme pairs.

scm> (zip '((1 2)))
((1) (2))
scm> (zip '((1 2) (3 4) (5 6)))
((1 3 5) (2 4 6))

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 18 -u
python3 ok -q 18

Problem 19 (2 pt)

Implement the list-partitions procedure, which lists all of the ways to partition a positive integer total without using consecutive integers. The contents of each partition must be listed in decreasing order.

Hint: Define a helper procedure to construct partitions. The built-in append procedure creates a list containing all the elements of two argument lists. The cons-all procedure in questions.scm adds a first element to each list in a list of lists.

The number 5 has 4 partitions that do not contain consecutive integers:

4, 1
3, 1, 1
1, 1, 1, 1, 1

The following partitions of 5 are not included because of consecutive integers:

3, 2
2, 2, 1
2, 1, 1, 1

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 19 -u
python3 ok -q 19

Problem 20 (2 pt)

In Scheme, source code is data. Every non-primitive expression is a list, and we can write procedures that manipulate other programs just as we write procedures that manipulate lists.

Re-writing programs can be useful: we can write an interpreter that only handles a small core of the language, and then write a procedure analyze that converts other special forms into the core language before a program is passed to the interpreter.

For example, the let special form is equivalent to a call expression that begins with a lambda expression. Both create a new frame extending the current environment and evaluate a body within that new environment.

(let ((x 42) (y 16)) (+ x y))
;; Is equivalent to:
((lambda (x y) (+ x y)) 42 16)

We can use this rule to rewrite all let special forms into lambda expressions. We prevent evaluation of a program by quoting it, and then pass it to analyze:

scm> (analyze '(let ((a 1) (b 2)) (+ a b)))
((lambda (a b) (+ a b)) 1 2)
scm> (analyze '(let ((a 1)) (let ((b a)) b)))
((lambda (a) ((lambda (b) b) a)) 1)

In order to handle all programs, analyze must be aware of Scheme syntax. Since Scheme expressions are recursively nested, analyze must also be recursive. In fact, the structure of analyze looks like that of scheme_eval:

(define (analyze expr)
  (cond ((atom?   expr) <Analyze atom>)
        ((quoted? expr) <Analyze quoted>)
        ((lambda? expr) <Analyze lambda>)
        ((define? expr) <Analyze define>)
        ((let?    expr) <Analyze let>)
        (else           <Analyze other>)))

Implement the analyze procedure, which takes in an expression and converts all of the let special forms in the expression into their equivalent lambda expressions.

Hint: You may want to use the provided apply-to-all procedure and the zip procedure from Problem 18.

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q 20 -u
python3 ok -q 20

Note: We used let while defining analyze. What if we want to run analyze on an interpreter that does not recognize let? We can pass analyze to itself to compile itself into an equivalent program that does not use let:

;; The analyze procedure
(define (analyze expr)

;; A list representing the analyze procedure
(define analyze-code
  '(define (analyze expr)

;; An analyze procedure that does not use 'let'
(define analyze-without-let
  (analyze analyze-code))

Problem 21 (0 pt; optional)

Implement the hax procedure that draws the following recursive illustration when passed two arguments, a side length d and recursive depth k. The example below is drawn from (hax 200 4).


To see how this illustration is constructed, consider this annotated version that gives the relative lengths of lines of the component shapes in the figure.


Part IV: Extra

Extra Credit Problem 22 (2 pt)

Complete the function scheme_optimized_eval in This alternative to scheme_eval is properly tail recursive. That is, the interpreter will allow an unbounded number of active tail calls in constant space.

The Evaluate class represents an expression that needs to be evaluated in an environment. When scheme_optimized_eval receives an expression in a tail context, then it returns an Evaluate instance. Otherwise, it repeatedly evaluates expressions within the body of a while statement, updating result in each iteration.

A successful implementation will require changes to several other functions. All tail calls should call scheme_eval with True as a third argument, indicating a tail call.

Once you finish, uncomment the following line in to use your implementation:

scheme_eval = scheme_optimized_eval

Test your understanding and implementation before moving on:

python3 ok -q EC -u
python3 ok -q EC

Congratulations! You have finished the final project for 61A! Assuming your tests are good and you've passed them all, consider yourself a proper computer scientist!

Now, get some sleep. You've earned it!

Recursive Art Contest

We've added a number of primitive drawing procedures that are collectively called "turtle graphics". The turtle represents the state of the drawing module, which has a position, an orientation, a pen state (up or down), and a pen color. The tscheme__x_ functions in are the implementations of these procedures, and show their parameters with a brief description of each.

The Python documentation of the turtle module contains more detail.

Contest: Create a visualization of an iterative or recursive process of your choosing, using turtle graphics. Your implementation must be written entirely in Scheme using the interpreter you have built. However, you may add primitive procedures to interface with Python's turtle or math modules. Other than that all computation must be done in Scheme. If you do add new primitives, then make sure to submit in addition to contest.scm.

Prizes, as well as 3 extra credit points, will be awarded for the winning entry in each of the following categories:

You can check the number of tokens in a Scheme file called contest.scm by running the command

python3 contest.scm

Entries (code and images) will be posted online, and winners will be selected by popular vote as part of a future homework. The voting instructions will read:

Please vote for your favorite entry in this semester's 61A Recursion Exposition contest. The winner should exemplify the principles of elegance, beauty, and abstraction that are prized in the Berkeley computer science curriculum. As an academic community, we should strive to recognize and reward merit and achievement (translation: please don't just vote for your friends).

To improve your chance of success, you are welcome to include a title and descriptive haiku in the comments of your entry, which will be included in the voting.

Entries that do not construct an image iteratively or recursively may be disqualified. Please don't just draw a preexisting image, even if the drawing function is iterative or recursive. If you're unsure, just ask.

Submission instructions will be posted closer to the deadline.

Extra Challenge

We have implemented a significant subset of Scheme in this project, but our interpreter can be extended with more features by following the extension instructions.