# Homework 4:

*Due by 11:59pm on Thursday, 9/20*

## Instructions

Download hw04.zip. Inside the archive, you will find a file called
hw04.py, along with a copy of the `ok`

autograder.

**Submission:** When you are done, submit with ```
python3 ok
--submit
```

. You may submit more than once before the deadline; only the
final submission will be scored. Check that you have successfully submitted
your code on okpy.org. See Lab 0 for more instructions on
submitting assignments.

**Using Ok:** If you have any questions about using Ok, please
refer to this guide.

**Readings:** You might find the following references
useful:

**Grading:** Homework is graded based on effort, not
correctness. However, there is no partial credit; you must show substantial
effort on every problem to receive any points.

The `construct_check`

module is used in this assignment, which defines a
function `check`

. For example, a call such as

`check("foo.py", "func1", ["While", "For", "Recursion"])`

checks that the function `func1`

in file `foo.py`

does *not* contain
any `while`

or `for`

constructs, and is not an overtly recursive function (i.e.,
one in which a function contains a call to itself by name.)

## Required questions

### Q1: Taxicab Distance

An intersection in midtown Manhattan can be identified by an avenue and a
street, which are both indexed by positive integers. The *Manhattan distance* or
*taxicab distance* between two intersections is the number of blocks that must
be traversed to reach one from the other, ignoring one-way street restrictions
and construction. For example, Times Square
is on 46th Street and 7th Avenue.
Ess-a-Bagel is on 51st Street and 3rd
Avenue. The taxicab distance between them is 9 blocks (5 blocks from 46th
to 51st street and 4 blocks from 7th avenue to 3rd avenue). Taxicabs
cannot cut diagonally through buildings to reach their destination!

Implement `taxicab`

, which computes the taxicab distance between two
intersections using the following data abstraction. *Hint*: You don't need to
know what a Cantor pairing function is; just use the abstraction.

```
def intersection(st, ave):
"""Represent an intersection using the Cantor pairing function."""
return (st+ave)*(st+ave+1)//2 + ave
def street(inter):
return w(inter) - avenue(inter)
def avenue(inter):
return inter - (w(inter) ** 2 + w(inter)) // 2
w = lambda z: int(((8*z+1)**0.5-1)/2)
def taxicab(a, b):
"""Return the taxicab distance between two intersections.
>>> times_square = intersection(46, 7)
>>> ess_a_bagel = intersection(51, 3)
>>> taxicab(times_square, ess_a_bagel)
9
>>> taxicab(ess_a_bagel, times_square)
9
"""
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
```

Use Ok to test your code:

`python3 ok -q taxicab`

### Q2: Squares only

Implement the function `squares`

, which takes in a list of positive integers.
It returns a list that contains the square roots of the elements of the original
list that are perfect squares. Try using a list comprehension.

You may find the

`round`

function useful.`>>> round(10.5) 10 >>> round(10.51) 11`

```
def squares(s):
"""Returns a new list containing square roots of the elements of the
original list that are perfect squares.
>>> seq = [8, 49, 8, 9, 2, 1, 100, 102]
>>> squares(seq)
[7, 3, 1, 10]
>>> seq = [500, 30]
>>> squares(seq)
[]
"""
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
```

Use Ok to test your code:

`python3 ok -q squares`

### Q3: G function

A mathematical function `G`

on positive integers is defined by two
cases:

```
G(n) = n, if n <= 3
G(n) = G(n - 1) + 2 * G(n - 2) + 3 * G(n - 3), if n > 3
```

Write a recursive function `g`

that computes `G(n)`

. Then, write an
iterative function `g_iter`

that also computes `G(n)`

:

Hint:The`fibonacci`

example in the tree recursion lecture is a good illustration of the relationship between the recursive and iterative definitions of a tree recursive problem.

```
def g(n):
"""Return the value of G(n), computed recursively.
>>> g(1)
1
>>> g(2)
2
>>> g(3)
3
>>> g(4)
10
>>> g(5)
22
>>> from construct_check import check
>>> check(HW_SOURCE_FILE, 'g', ['While', 'For'])
True
"""
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
def g_iter(n):
"""Return the value of G(n), computed iteratively.
>>> g_iter(1)
1
>>> g_iter(2)
2
>>> g_iter(3)
3
>>> g_iter(4)
10
>>> g_iter(5)
22
>>> from construct_check import check
>>> check(HW_SOURCE_FILE, 'g_iter', ['Recursion'])
True
"""
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
```

Use Ok to test your code:

```
python3 ok -q g
python3 ok -q g_iter
```

### Q4: Count change

Once the machines take over, the denomination of every coin will be a power of two: 1-cent, 2-cent, 4-cent, 8-cent, 16-cent, etc. There will be no limit to how much a coin can be worth.

Given a positive integer `amount`

, a set of coins makes change for `amount`

if
the sum of the values of the coins is `amount`

. For example, the following
sets make change for `7`

:

- 7 1-cent coins
- 5 1-cent, 1 2-cent coins
- 3 1-cent, 2 2-cent coins
- 3 1-cent, 1 4-cent coins
- 1 1-cent, 3 2-cent coins
- 1 1-cent, 1 2-cent, 1 4-cent coins

Thus, there are 6 ways to make change for `7`

. Write a recursive function
`count_change`

that takes a positive integer `amount`

and returns the number of
ways to make change for `amount`

using these coins of the future.

Hint:Refer the implementation of`count_partitions`

for an example of how to count the ways to sum up to an amount with smaller parts. If you need to keep track of more than one value across recursive calls, consider writing a helper function.

```
def count_change(amount):
"""Return the number of ways to make change for amount.
>>> count_change(7)
6
>>> count_change(10)
14
>>> count_change(20)
60
>>> count_change(100)
9828
>>> from construct_check import check
>>> check(HW_SOURCE_FILE, 'count_change', ['While', 'For'])
True
"""
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
```

Use Ok to test your code:

`python3 ok -q count_change`

### Q5: Towers of Hanoi

A classic puzzle called the Towers of Hanoi is a game that consists of three
rods, and a number of disks of different sizes which can slide onto any rod.
The puzzle starts with `n`

disks in a neat stack in ascending order of size on
a `start`

rod, the smallest at the top, forming a conical shape.

The objective of the puzzle is to move the entire stack to an `end`

rod,
obeying the following rules:

- Only one disk may be moved at a time.
- Each move consists of taking the top (smallest) disk from one of the rods and sliding it onto another rod, on top of the other disks that may already be present on that rod.
- No disk may be placed on top of a smaller disk.

Complete the definition of `move_stack`

, which prints out the steps required to
move `n`

disks from the `start`

rod to the `end`

rod without violating the
rules. The provided `print_move`

function will print out the step to move a
single disk from the given `origin`

to the given `destination`

.

Hint:Draw out a few games with various`n`

on a piece of paper and try to find a pattern of disk movements that applies to any`n`

. In your solution, take the recursive leap of faith whenever you need to move any amount of disks less than`n`

from one rod to another.

```
def print_move(origin, destination):
"""Print instructions to move a disk."""
print("Move the top disk from rod", origin, "to rod", destination)
def move_stack(n, start, end):
"""Print the moves required to move n disks on the start pole to the end
pole without violating the rules of Towers of Hanoi.
n -- number of disks
start -- a pole position, either 1, 2, or 3
end -- a pole position, either 1, 2, or 3
There are exactly three poles, and start and end must be different. Assume
that the start pole has at least n disks of increasing size, and the end
pole is either empty or has a top disk larger than the top n start disks.
>>> move_stack(1, 1, 3)
Move the top disk from rod 1 to rod 3
>>> move_stack(2, 1, 3)
Move the top disk from rod 1 to rod 2
Move the top disk from rod 1 to rod 3
Move the top disk from rod 2 to rod 3
>>> move_stack(3, 1, 3)
Move the top disk from rod 1 to rod 3
Move the top disk from rod 1 to rod 2
Move the top disk from rod 3 to rod 2
Move the top disk from rod 1 to rod 3
Move the top disk from rod 2 to rod 1
Move the top disk from rod 2 to rod 3
Move the top disk from rod 1 to rod 3
"""
assert 1 <= start <= 3 and 1 <= end <= 3 and start != end, "Bad start/end"
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
```

Use Ok to test your code:

`python3 ok -q move_stack`

## Extra questions

Extra questions are not worth extra credit and are entirely optional. They are designed to challenge you to think creatively!

### Q6: Anonymous factorial

The recursive factorial function can be written as a single expression by using a conditional expression.

```
>>> fact = lambda n: 1 if n == 1 else mul(n, fact(sub(n, 1)))
>>> fact(5)
120
```

However, this implementation relies on the fact (no pun intended) that
`fact`

has a name, to which we refer in the body of `fact`

. To write a
recursive function, we have always given it a name using a `def`

or
assignment statement so that we can refer to the function within its
own body. In this question, your job is to define fact recursively
without giving it a name!

Write an expression that computes `n`

factorial using only call
expressions, conditional expressions, and lambda expressions (no
assignment or def statements). *Note in particular that you are not
allowed to use make_anonymous_factorial in your return expression.*
The

`sub`

and `mul`

functions from the `operator`

module are the only
built-in functions required to solve this problem:```
from operator import sub, mul
def make_anonymous_factorial():
"""Return the value of an expression that computes factorial.
>>> make_anonymous_factorial()(5)
120
>>> from construct_check import check
>>> check(HW_SOURCE_FILE, 'make_anonymous_factorial', ['Assign', 'AugAssign', 'FunctionDef', 'Recursion'])
True
"""
return 'YOUR_EXPRESSION_HERE'
```

Use Ok to test your code:

`python3 ok -q make_anonymous_factorial`